Strabismus is a visual defect in which the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. A second disorder, amblyopia, which is reduced vision in an eye that did not receive adequate use during childhood, commonly goes along with strabismus.
One cause of strabismus is the inadequate coordination of the six muscles which move the eye. Normal vision occurs by coordinated synthesis of the retinal images into a single brain image. When one eye does not transmit a coordinated image, the brain chooses to ignore this image when conducting its synthesis (suppression). The region of the brain which first brings the two retinal images together is the visual cortex. If there is a problem with one eye that prevents stimuli from reaching or being utilized by the brain, ocular dominance columns do not develop, leaving the eye functionally blind.
A lazy eye or wandering eye (amblyopia), results when the retinal images from one eye are not incorporated into the brain image and the eye is free to drift. If the visual cortex did use the two images, one would see double (diplopia) because the images would not fit together properly. Instead, the visual cortex learns to use only the eye with better alignment or vision. As a result, the ocular dominance column for the misaligned eye is not developed because the cells never mature and grow into an operating unit.
Types of strabismus include:
- Esotropia ? eye turning inward
- Exotropia ? eye turning outward
- Hypertropia ? eye turning upward
- Hypotropia ? eye turning downward
Light therapy coupled with color therapy helps to improve faulty eye muscle function. Light stimulates the retinal cells causing a greater amount of information to reach the cortical layers as well as the superiour colliculus. The cerebellum becomes excited causing a midline shift of cranial nerves 3, 4, 6, and 12.
Recommendations: A red lens allows for activation of the lateral muscle and a greater sympathetic reaction. Red pulls the eye out, creating greater peripheral awareness.
Esotropia: Black component, Red lens, Bottom row brighter
A blue lens will create a greater parasympathetic reaction, pulling the eye in toward the core of the body.
Exotropia: Black component, Blue lens, Bottom row brighter